Everyday sciences: An overview


Introduction and explanation of everyday sciences

To understand everyday sciences first, we will explain what  actually the science is. What we call science (Latin: scientia, sciere: know) has been roughly described as “the organized attempt of mankind to describe how things work as casual systems”. Each one reads of Nature’s book a little and a little more and each one begins where the last leaves off.

Science is also defined as a branch of study which is concerned either with a connected body of demonstrated truths or with observed facts systematically classified by being brought under general laws, and which include trustworthy methods for the discovery of new truths within its own domain.

There are two main divisions of science, natural and physical. Everyday sciences is the sub branch of science which applies to most common and daily process of nature. The term may also be defined as the ordered arrangements of ascertained knowledge, including the methods by which such knowledge is extended and the criteria by which its truth is tested.

Perhaps science is more clearly defined by saying that it is, firstly, a vast collection of facts expressed in exact and unambiguous language in such a manner that anyone who cares to take the trouble can test their truth; and, secondly a collection of rules or laws which express the connection between the facts.

So long as man believed each other’s assertions without testing them, knowledge made little progress. But when they tested their facts as right by doing experiments for themselves, science began to grow.

Nature, with all her phenomenon wide open, has been there all long. But man does not appear to have known much of it till recent times. The more he seeks the more he gathers. The present generation cannot, as a matter of fact, claim to have attained the maximum heights of progress. The mysterious of nature still lie far ahead of human reach.

Men of science have never been satisfied with the lot of man, nor with their knowledge of the world in which they live. They have constantly sought to reach out for what they did not possess and to seek and explanation of what man did not understand.

From the days of the caveman to this age of atomic power, there has been a long, hard struggle for understanding. This struggle has been both against heavy odds of nature and the ignorant common man, who has been very conservative, even to the bitterest end, in realizing the laws of nature, the truth.

Most of the facts about nature that we possess today were established after a terrible struggle. It has all along been a very difficult task to tell the truth against an established false belief.

Galileo, who dropped the balls, one heavy, on light and proved that they reach the ground at the same instant, and was bold enough in telling that Aristotle had been wrong all those centuries, was persecuted. When Bruno told the people that the earth is not the only important place in the universe he was burn to death in Rome.

Copernicus realized that the earth and the other planets revolve round the sun, but for, fear of punishment, perhaps torture to death, he kept his discovery secret from all except those whom he considered his confidential friends.

Still the word of his belief got round and he suffered persecution. He waited almost the last minute before giving the manuscript to publisher. The first printed pages of his great work were put into his hands as he lay dying. He could feel them but could not see what he had written. There have been so many other similar cases which cannot find space here.

Men of the science realize the truth, “the laws of nature”, by careful constant study of different happenings in nature. “The laws of nature” mean the laws that are deducted from an observation of natural phenomenon which correctly account for the invariable sequence between specified conditions and specified phenomenon.

The scientist observes a certain phenomenon and tries to account for it. He collects all the information and observable facts about the phenomenon and attempts to correlate them in to a statement which would always be true.

He formulates a certain law and tests its truth by applying it to observed natural phenomena. In case it stands the test, it becomes a “law of nature” until a more advanced and exact knowledge disproves it as, for example, the theory of relativity has at last proved that Newton’s laws of motion are only first approximations to the real truths. A scientist does not take anything for granted but tries to satisfy himself as far as possible.

Modern civilization owes largely to science, its acknowledged success in dealing with the material world. That success has caused the ideas of science to exercise a great influence in shaping the thinking of the age.

In the three centuries, since Galileo, the success of the sciences in dealing with the matter has been very great. It is hardly necessary to elaborate. One has only to look around to discover how wide the field of science is, how numerous is its application in daily life.

One lifts the receiver and hears a voice, soars high amidst the birds, above the clouds, even higher than that floats on the surface of the sea, goes deep into it for as long as he likes, sees and hears a person speaking form far, far away, thousands of miles away, locates and silences a hidden but roaring gun, types words from as far away as he may choose, sees an enemy lying hidden in trenches quite clearly, can see the stars in the remotest parts of the high heavens, can aspire to visit planets and the moon, can drop himself down safely from thousands of feet above the ground.

Everyday sciences and many more similar topics that have been taken up in this category of our site.


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